ISSN 0972-611X 
UGC Journals Approved List
​Reference No. 48352 (Re – Markings)

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Re-Markings, a biannual refereed international journal of English Letters, aims at providing a healthy forum for scholarly and authoritative views on broad sociopolitical and cultural issues of human import as evidenced in literature, art, television, cinema and journalism with special emphasis on New Literatures in English including translations and creative excursions.​



Vol. 16 No.1, January 2017 

Bose: Immortal Legend of India’s Freedom ​ Contemporary Critical Orientations

About the Issue: As an adolescent, Subhas Chandra Bose had questioned his mother, “Will the condition of our country continue to go from bad to worse – will not any son of Mother India in distress, in total disregard of his selfish interests, dedicate his whole life to the cause of the Mother?” Intuitively aware of his own destiny as the selfsame gallant knight of “Mother India in distress,” Bose was largely instrumental in hastening the departure of the British Empire from the soil of India by virtue of his undisputed military valour and inspiring leadership of the I.N.A. Yet, despite the reluctant and grudging testimony of the likes of Lord Mountbatten and Clement Atlee, it is passing strange that narratives of his stellar role in the Indian freedom struggle continue to languish in the anonymous corridors of History. This Special Number of Re-Markings addresses every possible aspect of Bose’s life, work and writings and also dwells upon related issues of contemporary relevance like women empowerment, communal amity,  economic planning, caste/class dichotomy, make-in-India initiative, role of media in state governance, corruption in high places, that Bose had been concerned with in his perpetual ‘discovery of India.’ The volume is bound to be of abiding interest for everyone interested in the remaking of a nation in consonance with the legacy bequeathed to us by the immortal legend of India’s freedom.


“A Brighter Future is India’s Destiny”: A Conversation with Sugata Bose — Nibir K. Ghosh

Professor Sugata Bose, the grand-nephew of Subhas Chandra Bose, is Gardiner Professor of Oceanic History and Affairs at Harvard University, U.S.A., and Member of Parliament in the current Lok Sabha. A Ph.D. from the University of Cambridge (1983), his field of specialization is Modern South Asian and Indian Ocean history. A recipient of the Guggenheim Fellowship, his publications include Peasant Labour and Colonial Capital; A Hundred Horizons: the Indian Ocean in the Age of Global Empire; Modern South Asia: History, Culture, Political Economy; Nationalism, Democracy and Development; Credit, Markets and the Agrarian Economy of Colonial India; and South Asia and World Capitalism. His most recent book is His Majesty's Opponent: Subhas Chandra Bose and India's Struggle against Empire (2011). An eloquent orator, he has been invited for lectures and talks in various countries: Austria, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, China, Germany, France, Italy, Kuwait, Japan, Malaysia, Netherland, New Zealand, Pakistan, Portugal, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, UAE, U.K. and U.S.A. In this conversation with Nibir K. Ghosh, Professor Sugata Bose offers useful insights into the many dimensions of the life and work of the legendary hero, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.

Nibir: As an eminent international historian of Harvard fame, how does it feel to be so closely connected to the hallowed personality of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose who is undoubtedly one of the greatest revolutionaries of the Indian Freedom struggle?

Sugata: Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose used to say that his family and country were coterminous. My parents taught me since childhood not to claim any special relationship with the great revolutionary based on an accident of birth. I am proud, of course, to belong to the country that produced Subhas Chandra Bose. When my father Sisir Kumar Bose received popular adulation and heard the slogan “Bose khandan zindabad” on his release from prison in September 1945, his father Sarat Chandra Bose told him to remember that this was nothing but Subhas’s “reflected glory.” For Sisir, Netaji was his leader rather than his uncle.

Nibir: You, along with your revered father, Dr. Sisir Kumar Bose, have contributed immensely in bringing into limelight the life, work, speeches, letters and writings of Netaji through the Netaji Research Bureau. What motivated you into undertaking such a challenging enterprise?

Sugata: The credit for preserving and presenting Netaji’s book of life to the world belongs entirely to my father Dr. Sisir Kumar Bose who was ably helped by my mother Krishna Bose and a small band of dedicated workers. My father was convinced that the best traditions of the freedom struggle had to be bequeathed to future generations. He collected letters, documents, speeches, photographs, audio recordings and film footage connected with Netaji from all over the world and disseminated them to the wider public. Since I grew up in tandem with the Netaji Research Bureau he founded in 1957 (I was born in 1956), I helped out in this ambitious project in small ways. I had the good fortune of meeting the noble men and women who had fought for India’s independence under Netaji’s leadership and was inspired by the saga of their suffering and sacrifice. Their story had to be recorded and told. I began to take a more active role once my father’s health began to fail since Netaji’s work had to go on.

Nibir: In a talk delivered at the 5th International Netaji Seminar at Calcutta in January 1985, Peter Fay wondered: “What is the British perception of Netaji and the I.N.A.?” Fay answered the question himself: “Cloudy, I would suggest. Inverted which is a variety of being wrong. Finally, and most obviously, incomplete. It is an incompleteness that comes in part from just refusing to look. Do you know what happened to Netaji in British publications during the war? He disappeared.” In the light of this statement, how would you evaluate Hugh Toye’s The Springing Tiger, the first known assessment of Netaji by a Britisher?

Sugata: I hold a high opinion of Hugh Toye’s biography The Springing Tiger. Considering that it was written by a British intelligence officer who had fought against Netaji and interrogated INA prisoners, the book was remarkable for its broad-minded and balanced approach. Toye made some errors of fact and judgment. For example, he did not have access to records that would later show Netaji had sharply criticized Germany’s invasion of the Soviet Union. My father helped him with source materials in the early days of the Netaji Research Bureau and was even criticized in certain Indian circles for helping a British author. After my father’s death Hugh Toye wrote to my mother from Oxford on January 27, 2001, “I no longer take a daily paper, so that it was only the other day that I heard of the departure of your husband, a brave boy who became a great man. He was always very kind – unexpectedly kind – to me.” My father was always willing to help and make the NRB archives available to bonafide researchers. As Leonard Gordon mentions in the preface to his Brothers against the Raj, he never told historians what to write and respected their freedom of expression even if they were critical of the leader he himself adored. I fondly remember Peter Fay whom you quote. His book The Forgotten Army is elegantly written and is one of the finest contributions to scholarship on the Second World War. He was an eloquent speaker and gave a terrific interview for my film Rebels against the Raj, which was telecast on PBS in the late 1980s.

Nibir:  In his Foreword to Toye’s The Springing Tiger, Philip Mason writes: “There are elements repellant in Bose’s character—his arrogance and refusal to compromise….Power corrupted him; he grew more intolerant, more certain. But no one can doubt the stature of the man, his intellectual scope and the passion with which he held his convictions.” From the dual perspective of a historian as well as a kin of Netaji, what are your views on the picture of Netaji as portrayed by Mason?

Sugata: From the singular perspective of a historian (I take no view of Netaji as a family member) I am somewhat amused by Mason’s portrayal, which is quite typical of the old hands of the British raj whose condemnation was often leavened by a grudging admiration for a formidable opponent. The refusal to compromise with injustice and wrong was one of the most appealing features in Bose’s character. I am puzzled by Mason’s conception of power. No one spoke truth to power as Bose did. Bose’s life was an example of tyag or renunciation of power and privilege.

Nibir: How would you react to the opinion of Nirad C. Chaudhari on Subhas Chandra Bose that it was not his love of India but only intense hatred of the British that drove him through most of his life?

Sugata: Nirad C. Chaudhuri was a highly opinionated man who was mistaken in this opinion. It was not just Subhas’s love of India, but love as an essential element, that defined him. As he wrote in his unfinished autobiography, “I see all around me the play of love; I perceive within me the same instinct; I feel that I must love in order to fulfill myself and I need love as the basic principle on which to reconstruct life.” His hatred was reserved for oppressive British rule, not the British, and he advocated the friendliest relations with the British people once freedom was won.

Nibir: If there was an attempt by British historians and scholars to relegate Netaji to the margins of the then contemporary history, does it not seem strange that outside Bengal, the portrayal of Netaji’s role in the Freedom Struggle by Indian historians has not been much different? What causes would you attribute to such neglect of Netaji?

Sugata: Netaji has been neglected only in official histories and textbooks and by court historians in post-independence India. There is a certain price to be paid for being the alter-ego to those wielding state power. He looms large in popular memory, not just in Bengal, but throughout the subcontinent. In fact, I think he is more revered in Punjab and Tamil Nadu and by freedom-loving peoples in many peripheral regions of India than in Bengal. He need not be part of the official canon. I would much rather see him as a subject of independent scholarship in the future.

Nibir: The confrontation that Subhas Bose had with Professor E.F. Oaten at Presidency college, Calcutta led to his expulsion. In An Indian Pilgrim you have included the Poem “Subhas Chandra Bose” penned by Oaten in 1947, decades after the episode. What is your take on the poem especially with regard to Subhas?

Sugata: Oaten's poem is a very interesting one on the audacity and courage of Subhas Chandra Bose's challenge to the British Empire and strikes a note of mourning for the untimely stilling of his patriot heart. It is not by any means a eulogy, but conveys a sense of understanding, reconciliation and respect. My parents had a pleasant meeting with Professor and Mrs Oaten at their country home in 1971 and my father invited him to the First International Netaji Seminar held in January 1973. Professor Oaten could not travel because of poor health but sent a paper titled "The Bengal Student as I knew Him," which was read in absentia and then published in the proceedings Netaji and India's Freedom. My father believed Oaten's perspective should be recorded in the interest of history.

Nibir: In what way did the role and function of Netaji Research Bureau, established in 1957 in Calcutta, contribute to the correction of distorted or incomplete perspectives about the legendary leader?

Sugata: Netaji Research Bureau played a signal role in lighting a flame in 1957 that illuminated the multiple facets of Netaji’s life and work in the decades to come in the midst of complete official apathy. Instead of carping and complaining about governmental neglect, Sisir Kumar Bose set out to do the work that needed to be accomplished against stiff odds. In the process, Netaji Research Bureau was also able to show that the life was more fascinating and salient than the legend. Fringe groups styling themselves as devotees contributed to distorted perspectives on Netaji, just as officialdom could be blamed for incomplete ones. Sisir Kumar Bose lamented the emergence of “a strange and spurious Bose cult.” “Persistent rumors about Bose being alive and flights of fantasy in regard to his whereabouts,” he wrote in the introduction to the proceedings of an outstanding International Netaji Seminar in 1973 (published as Netaji and India’s Freedom in 1975), “prevented the development of a sober, scientific, historical appraisal of India’s only soldier-statesman of modern times.” The “spurious Bose cult” that he deplored is still doing the rounds. If Netaji gets once more shrouded in meaningless mystery, India will be in danger of losing sight of the life and work of a man who was much more than a mythical hero. There is much to learn from Netaji’s book of life in the present and the future.

Nibir: You have mentioned in your Preface to His Majesty’s Opponent that you were initially hesitant in writing a definitive biography of Subhas Chandra Bose. What was the cause of your hesitation? Also, as the grand-nephew of the gigantic historical figure, did you at any time, during the writing of the book, feel the tension of balancing personal relationship and history?

Sugata: I was hesitant because of the family relationship and I was clear that I wanted to write as a historian. Ultimately, I could see that if I had a bias it was likely to be shared by countless people in the subcontinent. Also, I felt the knowledge I had garnered by being associated with NRB and as joint editor of Netaji’s Collected Works had to be put to good use. It takes almost a lifetime of research to write a good book about Netaji. I wrote mine at a time when I felt I had the requisite critical distance and could place Netaji’s life in the context of modern global history.

Nibir: You have quoted a statement by Mahatma Gandhi in His Majesty’s Opponent wherein the Mahatma shows his admiration for Netaji in the context of the INA: “The lesson that Netaji and his army brings to us is one of self-sacrifice, unity—irrespective of class and community—and discipline.” Notwithstanding Netaji’s profound personal admiration and respect for Gandhi, he is candid enough to confess in The Indian Struggle 1920-34: “The leader of the Congress is Mahatma Gandhi–who is the virtual dictator. The Working Committee since 1929 has been elected according to his dictation and no one can find place on that committee who is not thoroughly submissive to him and his policy.” Do you think such an impression could have been instrumental in the ultimate parting of ways between Netaji and the Mahatma?

Sugata: I think Subhas was occasionally too blunt and tactlessly candid in his criticisms of Mahatma Gandhi in the 1920s and 1930s. He was honest in expressing his views to a fault, but he also genuinely admired Gandhi. There was no “ultimate” parting of the ways between Netaji and the Mahatma. They fell out in 1939 over the correct strategy to follow in winning freedom, but came closer in the aims and ideology from 1942 onwards. Gandhi recognized and respected Netaji’s greatest achievement in uniting all the religious communities of India.

Nibir: Netaji had inspired millions of Indians based in different parts of the world with his slogan, “Dilli Chalo!” Had he been present when the national flag was unfurled from the ramparts of the Red Fort in Delhi on 15th August 1947, do you think India’s “tryst with destiny” may have been different?

Sugata: This question is about a big “if” of history. I think Netaji and the Mahatma working together may have been able to avert the tragedy of partition. Subhas Chandra Bose would certainly have worked towards an equitable sharing of power among India’s diverse religious and linguistic groups in a federal India. He would also have been more energetic in removing the scourge of poverty, illiteracy and disease in our country.

Nibir: As a historian, what are your perceptions of Netaji’s “discovery of India” with Jawahar Lal Nehru’s Discovery of India?

Sugata: Netaji’s discovery of India took place as a teenager doing social work among the poor and destitute well before his first trip to Europe. Jawaharlal Nehru found himself among the kisans of UP in his early thirties during the non-cooperation movement, having already spent his formative years in Harrow and Cambridge. Both were cosmopolitan figures, but Bose’s cosmopolitanism was more rooted than Nehru’s.

Nibir: From the exalted academic position of Gardiner Professor of Oceanic History and Affairs at Harvard University, what inspired you to take the plunge into active Indian politics? How do you come to terms with factors like the criminalization of politics which is so common in the Indian context?

Sugata: My primary identity is that of an historian, scholar and teacher. I am simply helping out in the political sphere at a critical historical moment in Indian politics. I felt there needed to be an alternative to the forces of religious majoritarianism and unbridled capitalism that seem poised to overwhelm Indian democracy. I was very reluctant to take the plunge into politics precisely because of the criminalization you refer to. But then, if there is any hope of cleansing Indian politics, we need good people from different walks of life to take active part in democratic political processes.

Nibir: As a Member of Parliament of the world’s largest democracy, what is your vision of India? How do you manage to cope with the challenges of caste, marginalization, communalism and rampant corruption so common to Indian polity?

Sugata: My vision is that of an egalitarian and federal India where historically marginalized people are fully empowered as equal citizens. I cope with the challenges by keep warning my countrymen not to confuse religious majoritarianism with democracy, and uniformity with unity. We need to reclaim patriotism from the chauvinists, religion from the religious bigots, and politics from the corrupt.

Nibir: In one of your recent eloquent speeches in the Lok Sabha, you remarked “I am a nationalist. I believe in a kind of nationalism that instills a feeling of selfless service in our people and inspires their creative efforts.” What is your own agenda for instilling in citizens the idea and practice of selfless service?

Sugata: Even when I speak in Parliament, I see myself as a teacher lecturing in a massive online course on political ethics. Having been a teacher in universities for three and a half decades, I think I communicate quite well with the 18 to 25-year old age group. I hope to persuade this younger generation of the virtue of seva and that they can achieve a sense of deep fulfillment in living for others less fortunate than themselves.

Nibir: “How many selfless sons of the Mother are prepared, in this selfish age, to completely give up their personal interests and take the plunge for the Mother?” This is a question which Subhas asked his mother when he was barely fifteen. Musing over this question a little over a century later, is it possible to respond with any kind of optimism? What, according to you, can be done to attract contemporary Indian youth to the legacy of love and passion for the motherland left behind by the Netaji?

Sugata: Optimism is a pragmatic necessity. In the letters that Subhas wrote as a fifteen-year old to his mother and brother Sarat he described darkness, despair and decline engulfing India. Yet he found refuge in Tennyson-like optimism. “A brighter future is India’s destiny,” he wrote to Sarat. “The day may be far off – but it must come.” I would urge contemporary youth never to lose faith in India’s destiny. However, they should avoid the snare of narrow nationalism. True love for the motherland can only bloom in the garden of a larger humanity.


Professor Sugata Bose, grand-nephew of Subhas Chandra Bose, ​Gardiner Professor of Oceanic History,  Harvard University, U.S.A., and M.P., Lok Sabha ​ speaking at the launch on March 18th, 2017 at Agra Club, Agra.


The refusal to compromise with injustice and wrong was one of the most appealing features in Bose's character. His life was an example of tyag or renunciation of power and privilege. Though Netaji has been neglected in official histories and textbooks, he looms large in popular memory, not just in Bengal, but throughout the subcontinent. – Professor Sugata Bose, grand-nephew of Subhas Chandra Bose, Gardiner Professor of Oceanic History, Harvard University, U.S.A., and M.P., Lok Sabha.

Bose lost his life for the country and he is not given the recognition he deserves….We desperately need someone like him, someone who is not self seeking but can put the country before himself. The idea of being an Indian is dying out. – Mrs. Zeenat Ahmad, Wife and companion to Colonel Mahboob Ahmad

Subhas Chandra Bose was not just a mythical hero…his rise to the status of Netaji was not the result of just one daring act; he represented a way of life which in its totality was the very essence of India's struggle for freedom and national self-fulfilment. Bose's importance to India had increased, rather than decreased, with the attainment of independence. – Dr. Sisir Kumar Bose, nephew of Subhas Chandra Bose, founder of Netaji Research Bureau, Kolkata

There is a strong opinion in many quarters that had Subhas Chandra Bose been alive, the partition of the country could have been averted…. He was capable and had all the potential of changing the destiny of the subcontinent and take humanity in this region to a different direction and a brighter common future. – Professor Abdul Shaban, Deputy Director, Tata Institute of Social Sciences, Mumbai

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose looms very large in the mythical space of my childhood, similar to the figure of Vivekananda. – Padma Shri Dr. Ramesh Chandra Shah, celebrity Hindi writer (Sahitya Akademi award recipient)

Subhash Chandra Bose is no exception to the idiosyncrasies of the writing and the writing-into-silence of History. Remembrance would be meaningful if we understand Bose, the human person, engaging in dialogue with his life, convictions, his writings and his idea of India. – Professor Shankar Dutt, Patna University, Patna

Time and again, Netaji has reminded us how he would remain a statesman the world cannot ignore or bury in the dusty pages of history. – Anurag Mallic & Priya Ganapathy, Travel Writers(Redscarab), Bengaluru

India attained freedom after the country had been partitioned in a ruthless manner. It was not the freedom that had been envisioned by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose. – Prof. N.S. Tasneem, Sahitya Akademi award recipient

Bose saw a Free India with no discrimination on grounds of caste, race, sex, creed or wealth. – Professor Sugam Anand, Dr. B.R.A. University, Agra

Subhas Chandra Bose's stance on the question of Hindu-Muslim unity was flawless…. His Azad Hind Fauj was remarkable for drawing soldiers from different sections and different communities. – Professor Asim Siddiqui, A.M.U., Aligarh  

While celebrating the life of the legendary Subhas, let us remember with pride and fondness how Emilie Schenkl, a non-Hindu woman from an alien clime and culture could so selflessly devote and dedicate herself, like the legendary Indian women of bygone ages, to her first and only love, Subhas. – Dr. Sunita Rani Ghosh, Agra College, Agra

Even today Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose is a shining example of leadership, nonnegotiable integrity, sacrifice and valour in world history. – Group Captain J.P.S. Chauhan, I.A.F.

Subhash Bose's exemplary spirit of patriotism, his love, dedication and life-long selfless sacrifice for his motherland can always be a source of inspiration for the youth today. – Swami Sujayanand, Senior Monk, Ramkrishna Mission, Kolkata

Netaji firmly believed that no country can develop without women's participation and their emancipation and strongly advocated gender equality. – Dr. Sanjukta Sattar, University of Mumbai, Mumbai

India got independence. The questing hero of India disappeared. India is still waiting for the return of Her priceless son. – Dr. Ajit Mukherjee, Director KIIT, Bhubaneswar

His Majesty's Opponent by Sugata Bose is no less than a thrilling narrative of the adventures of a charismatic nationalist, larger than life, where the actual person of flesh and blood is as electrifying as the legend. – Dr. Dev Vrat Sharma, Govt. College, Dausa

Tagore’s dedication of his poetic composition “Ekala Chalo Re” to Bose speaks volumes of the love and reverence Tagore had for Bose. – Dr. Shrikant Singh, Nav Nalanda Mahavihara, Nalanda

In the history of this country perhaps no other national icon evokes more enigma and intellectual curiosity than Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose….His whole life has been a unique experiment with diverse ideologies to achieve a single goal which was India's Independence. – Dr. Sukalpa Bhattacharjee, NEHU, Shillong

So much is the emotional investment by Indians in Subhas Chandra Bose that an incredible percentage of them continue to believe in the possibility of his miraculous return, 120 years after his birth! – Dr. Supantha Bhattacharya, Hislop College, Nagpur

His verbal ingenuity is admirable and carefully cultivated which shows his command over words, freshness of ideas and richness of emotions in addressing the grave problems of pre-independence India.  Dr. Abnish Singh Chauhan, Editor, Creation and Criticism

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was the biggest youth icon of his times with the power to sway millions with his blueprint for Independent India. – Dr. Monali Bhattacharya, JIIT, Noida

Had Netaji been present when the tricolour was unfurled at the Red Fort in Delhi on 15th August 1947, who knows India's “tryst with destiny” may have been spectacularly resonant with Tagore's “Heaven of Freedom.” ​– Prof. Nibir K. Ghosh, UGC Emeritus Professor, Agra College, Agra

Forthcoming Special Numbers


A World Assembly of POETS : Contemporary Poems

Re-Markings Special Number 
Vol.16 No.4, November 2017

Contemporary Poems

"For sixteen years Re-Markings has been an important journal of international literature and culture with an ever-expanding critical range and creative reach. This new, special issue devoted exclusively to the world's best poetry proves that it is a visionary publication crucial for understanding the complexity of our world, our humanity, and our lives at this watershed moment in the 21st century." —Charles Johnson (Winner of National Book Award, USA)

“Had Plato been around to see this wonderful collection, he would have gladly lifted the ban on entry of poets in his Republic.”—Nibir K. Ghosh (Chief Editor, Re-Markings)

“In this general assembly of some of the world's best poets, the venue is not New York, but the platform is in fabled India. In this wondrous collection, which strives for geographical representativeness, reflects variable styles and themes, we have poets and poetry from Africa, America, Asia, Australia/New Zealand, Europe, Latin America and Caribbean, and the Middle East. Bringing the world together across such varied space to celebrate and commiserate through the poetic idiom is undoubtedly an ambitious enterprise. —Tijan M. Sallah, Guest Editor (The Gambia)

A few extracts from poems represented in this volume:    

"Early in life we all look like each other, /  The sweet pea sprout is a foetus with a bulging forehead."  —Per Wastberg

"I met a collector of rain once/ Who went to sleep in my sleeve." — Sonia Sanchez (USA)


"Most of the world is centred/ About ourselves." –Paul Muldoon (Northern Ireland)

"Remember when we inquired/ Sweetly of the cane." –Summer Edward (Trinidad and Tobago)

"All they you've danced they take from you." –Ariel Dorfman (Chile) 

"All the poetry there is in the world/ appears to rise out of the ashes." —Jayanta Mahapatra (India)    


JIIT Noida ICSA 17

South Asian Literature: Diluting Borders, Bridging Gaps: Selections from Presentations at the International Conference on "Peaceful and Prosperous South Asia-Opportunities and Challenges" (ICSA)-2017 being organized by Jaypee Institute of Information Technology, Noida from 27-29 March 2017.​


​Re-Markings, an international refereed biannual journal of literature and the humanities, provides an open forum for scholarly discussion of issues related to artistic expression and creativity in all genres and their impact on society, culture and politics. We are especially interested in contemporary literature, art, television, cinema and journalism, and welcome essays and book reviews on New Literatures in English from around the globe. We are also interested in translations into English from all languages, especially those of South Asia. We welcome suggestions on guest-edited Special Numbers as well as Special Sections based on specific events, issues, themes and individual authors that have already become a regular feature of Re-Markings. Mostly, we are interested in scholarly papers that offer issue-specific critical examination and analysis of literary discourses – dealing not only with the nuances of human predicament and suffering but also with the evolving strategies for survival, resistance, and self-determination.

Call for Papers :​ ​We are currently receiving submissions for the following two issues of Re-Markings: Vol. 17 No.2 September 2018 and Vol.18 No.1 March 2019.  All submissions must conform to the latest MLA Style Sheet and should not generally exceed 3000 words and should be accompanied by a declaration certifying that it is an original contribution and has not been published elsewhere. Contributions in MS WORD format, along with an abstract in about 200 words, may be sent by e-mail MS WORD attachment to Chief EditorDr. Nibir K. Ghosh, Emeritus Professor, Dept. of English Studies & Research, Agra College, Agra. 68 New Idgah Colony, Agra-282001. Phone:+91-562-2230242; cell:+91-9897062958. Email: